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Contact Tracing Apps

Proposed contact tracing frameworks

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Protocol Characteristics Additional resources

Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing (DP3T): click here.

  • DP3T, Data Protection Impact Assessment (1 May 2020): click here.
Singapore Government Digital Services, BlueTrace/OpenTrace

Privacy-Preserving Cross-Border Contact Tracing

: click here.

Apple & Google, Notification Exposure API: click here.

Application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow contact tracing apps from public health authorities to work across Android and iOS devices.
  • Google, 'Exposure Notification - Frequently Asked Questions' (April 2020): click here (pdf).

  • Angwin, Julia, 'Will Google’s and Apple’s COVID Tracking Plan Protect Privacy?', The Markup (14 April 2020): click here.

  • Benson, Jeff, 'Privacy Safeguards in Apple-Google Platform Could Be Abused, Experts Say', Digital Privacy News (14 April 2020): click here.

  • Radical AI Podcast, 'Apple & Google Partner to Promote Coronavirus Contact Tracing. Should You be Worried? with Seda Gurses', PodBean (15 April 2020): click here (podcast).

  • Sharon, Tamar, 'When Google and Apple get privacy right, is there still something wrong?', Medium (15 April 2020): click here.

  • Clover, Juli, 'Apple's Exposure Notification System: Everything You Need to Know', MacRumors (4 May 2020): click here.

Apple and Google Exposure Notification Express (ENE): click here. Expansion of the Notifications Exposure API to allow phones to carry out contact tracing without downloading an official national app.  

Pan European Privacy Protecting Proximity Tracing (PEPP-PT): click here.



Inria PRIVATICS team,

  • ROBERT: ROBust and privacy-presERving proximity Tracing: click here.
  • DESIRE (a decentralised evolution of ROBERT): click here.
  • Inria, '«Contact tracing»: Bruno Sportisse, PDG d’Inria, donne quelques éléments pour mieux comprendre les enjeux' (18 April 2020): click here.

Enigma Team, SafeTrace: Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing for COVID-19: click here.



Privacy-Sensitive Protocols And Mechanisms for Mobile Contact Tracing (PACT) / CovidSafe: click here. Decentralised  
TCN Coalition, TCN Protocol: click here. Decentralised



Noidle - Coalition, Whisper Tracing: an open and privacy first contact tracing protocol: click here. N/A  

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List of national contact tracing apps

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Country Tool Status

Accompanying documentation

European Union

The latest information on Member States' contact tracing apps can be found here.



Australia Australian Government - Department of Health, CovidSafe App
  • operational
  • voluntary
  • centralised
  • bluetooth-based
  • Privacy policy for COVIDSafe app: click here.
Austria Austrian Red Cross, Stopp Corona-App
  • operational since March 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
  • bluetooth-based, Google/Apple
Belgium Coronalert
  • operational since September 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised


Bulgaria TBD    
Czech Republic

Ministerstvo zdravotnictví České republiky, eRouška - part of smart quarantine


  • operational since April 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
  • Bluetooth-based
China Chinese government, WeChat and Alipay, Health Code App
  • operational
  • 'required'
  • centralised
  • location-based
Croatia TBD (Release in July 2020)
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
Cyprus Research Centre of Excellence on Information and Communication Technologies (RISE), CovTracer
  • operational since February 2020

  • voluntary

  • location/GPS-based 

  • CovTracer Privacy Policy: click here.

Sundheds- og Ældreministeriet, Smittestop

  • operational since June 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
Estonia TBD


  • voluntary
  • decentralised
  • Tervis, 'Eesti on koroonaäpi arendamisega lõpusirgel' (14 July 2020): click here.
Finland TBD (release in August 2020)


  • voluntary
  • decentralised
France Inria, ANSSI, Capgemini, Dassault Systèmes, Inserm, Lunabee Studio, Orange, Santé Publique France and Withings, StopCovid app


  • operational since June 2020
  • voluntary
  • centralised
  • Bluetooth-based
  • CNIL, Délibération n° 2020-056 du 25 mai 2020 portant avis sur un projet de décret relatif à l’application mobile dénommée «StopCovid» (25 May 2020): click here.

  • CNIL, Décision n° MED-2020-015 du 15 juillet 2020 mettant en demeure le ministère des solidarités et de la santé: click for (FR) and (EN).

Germany German Government, SAP and T-systems, Corona-Warn-app
  • operational since June 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised (DP-3T and TCN)
  • bluetooth-based, Google/Apple
  • open-source
  • Github documentation: click here.
  • Boehm, Franziska and Diana Dimitrova, 'FIZ Special Corona: The Corona Warning App in Germany - Data Protection Aspects', FIZ Karlsruhe (July 2020): click here.



Gibraltar Health Authority, Beat COVID Gibraltar app

  • operational since June 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
  • Bluetooth-based
Greece TBD    

Kormányzati Informatikai Fejlesztési Ügynökség, VírusRadar

  • operational since May 2020
  • voluntary
  • centralised
  • Bluetooth-based
  • VirusRadar, Privacy Policy: click here.
Iceland Directorate of Health, Rakning c-19 app
  • operational
  • voluntary
  • location-based
  • combined with large-scale testing
  • Privacy Statement: click here (IS) and here (EN)
  • Github documentation: click here.

Health Service Executive (HSE), COVID Tracker app

  • operational since July 2020
  • voluntary
  • Bluetooth-based
  • COVID Tracker, Privacy Policy: clik here.
Italy Ministry of Health, Immuni app
  • operational since June 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
  • Bluetooth-based, Google/Apple
  • Github Documentation including privacy (14 May 2020): click here (EN).
Latvia TBD    
Lithuania TBD (release in July)    
Luxembourg NO    
Malta TBD    
The Netherlands TBD    

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Smittestopp-app

  • operational
  • voluntary
  • centralised
  • Bluetooth/GPS-based
  • Privacy Statement (NO): click here.
  • EDPB, 'Temporary suspension of the Norwegian Covid-19 contact tracing app' (22 June 2020): click here.

Ministerstwo Cyfryzacji, ProteGO Safe app

  • operational since April 2020
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
Portugal TBD  


  • Portuguese Data Protection Authority:

    • Decisão relativa ao sistema de contact tracing STAYAWAY (29 June 2020): click here.
    • Deliberação da CNPD, relativa ao sistema Trace COVID19 (17 June 2020): click here.
    • Deliberação sobre a solução tecnológica que permite a identificação da “taxa de ocupação das praias de maior pressão”(Smart Crowd) (3 June 2020): click here.
Romania TBD    
Singapore Government Service Agency, TraceTogether
  • operational
  • voluntary
  • centralised
  • Blue Trace-based
Slovakia TBD    
Slovenia TBD    
Spain TBD  
  • Vega, Guillermo, 'Spain launches first phase of coronavirus-tracking app', EL PAIS (29 June 2020): click here.
Sweden NO    


Federal Office of Public Health FOPH, SwissCovid app


  • operational
  • voluntary
  • decentralised
  • Bluetooth/DP3T-based
  • combined with person-based contact tracing
  • Swiss National COVID-19 Science Task Force (NCS-TF), Resources: click here.
  • SwissCovid App: Data Protection Statement & Conditions of Use: click here.


United Kingdom
  • partially launched as of September 2020
  • voluntary
  • centralised
  • Bluetooth-based
  • Brock, Amanda, 'What happened to Britain's track and trace app?', The Article (29 June 2020): click here.
  • UK Department of Health and Social care, 'NHS COVID-19 app launches across England and Wales' (24 September 2020): click here.

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Additional resources on contact tracing tools by country

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Additional resources

  • Greenleaf, Graham and Kemp, Katharine:
    • 'Australia's COVIDSafe App needs more legal protections and transparency to gain trust', UNSW Sydney (1 May 2020): click here.
    • 'The COVIDSafe Bill: privacy protections improved, but more needed', UNSW Sydney (5 May 2020): click here.
    • 'The COVIDSafe bill doesn’t go far enough to protect our privacy. Here’s what needs to change', The Conversation (5 May 2020): click here.
  • Moechel, Erich, 'Österreich als EU-Testlabor für Corona-Apps', FM4.ORF (19 April 2020): click here.

  • EPICENTER.WORKS, noyb and SBA Reseach, 'Technical and Legal Review of the Stopp Corona App by the Austrian Red Cross' (20.04.2020): click here.

  • Mozur, Paul, Raymond Zhong and Aaron Krolik, 'In Coronavirus Fight, China Gives Citizens a Color Code, With Red Flags', The New York Times (1 March 2020): click here.
  • Sigmalive, 'Τίθεται σε λειτουργία η εφαρμογή ιχνηλάτησης για κορωνοϊό στην Κύπρο' (The coronavirus tracing app becomes operational in Cyprus) (5 April 2020): click here.
  • Inria, 'L'équipe-projet StopCovid et l’écosystème des contributeurs se mobilisent pour développer une application mobile de contact tracing pour la France (26 April 2020): click here.

  • Dillet, Romain, 'France’s data protection watchdog reviews contact-tracing app StopCovid', Techcrunch (26 May 2020): click here.

  • Krempl, Stephan, '"Epidemie-Fußfessel": Datenschützer gegen Handy-Tracking von Coronavirus-Infizierten', Heise Online (18 March 2020): click here.
  • Heise Online, 'Unionspolitiker: Infektionsketten per Handy-App zurückverfolgen' (27 March 2020): click here.
  • Ubl, Matthias, 'Bluetooth auf dem Handy ist sehr angreifbar', Zeit Online (1 April 2020): click here.
  • Forum Privatheit, 'Pressemitteilung: Handy-Daten für Kontaktverfolgung bei Corona: Vertrauen in staatliches Handeln ist in Krisenzeiten besonders wichtig' (2 April 2020): click here.
  • Köver, Chris, 'Zentrale vs. dezentrale Corona-Tracing-Apps: Welche Technologie bietet den besseren Datenschutz?', Netzpolitik (8 April 2020): click here.
  • Busvine, Douglas, 'German tech startups plead for European approach to corona tracing app', Reuters (14 April 2020): click here.
  • Hottelet, Ulrich, 'Digitalpolitik zwischen Tracking-Apps, Datenschutz und Datensouveränität', Heise Online (15 April 2020): click here.
  • Engeler, Malte, et al., 'Vorschlag für ein Gesetz zur Einführung und zum Betrieb einer App-basierten Nachverfolgung von Infektionsrisiken mit dem SARS-CoV-2 (Corona) Virus' (3 May 2020): click here.
  • Johnson, Bobbie, 'Nearly 40% of Icelanders are using a covid app—and it hasn’t helped much', MIT Technology Review (11 May 2020): click here.
  • Personal Information Protection Commission Japan, 'Personal Information Protection Commission’s view on effective use of contact tracing App to help deal with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)' (1 May 2020), click here.
United Kingdom
  • Kelion, Leo, 'UK coronavirus app 'must respect privacy rights'', BBC News (23 March 2020): click here.
  • Ada Lovelace Institute, 'Rapid Evidence Review: Exit through the App Store?' (20 April 2020): click here.
  • Gould, Matthew, 'Digital contact tracing: protecting the NHS and saving lives', NHSx (24 April 2020): click here.
  • Leprince-Ringuet, Daphne, 'Contact-tracing apps: Why the NHS said no to Apple and Google's plan', ZDNet (28 April 2020): click here.
  • Moné, Brianna, '170 cybersecurity experts warn that British government’s contact tracing app could be used to surveil people even after coronavirus has gone', BusinessInsider (29 April 2020): click here.

  • Ryder, Matthew, et al., 'COVID-19 & Tech responses: Legal opinion', Matrix Chambers (3 May 2020): click here.

  • Siatista, Ilia and Ioannis Kouvakas, 'Indiscriminate Covid-19 location tracking (Part I): Necessary in a democratic society?', Privacy International (4 May 2020): click here.

  • Ada Lovelace Institute, 'Provisos for a Contact Tracing App' (4 May 2020): click here.

  • UK Department of Health and Social Care, Letter Response to the Chair of the Joint Committee of Human Rights (4 May 2020): click here (pdf).

  • Sabbagh, Dan, Alex Hern and Kate Proctor, 'UK racing to improve contact-tracing app's privacy safeguards', The Guardian (5 May 2020): click here.

  • McCarthy, Kieren, 'UK finds itself almost alone with centralized virus contact-tracing app that probably won't work well, asks for your location, may be illegal', The Register (5 May 2020): click here.

  • Lynskey, Orla, and Veale, Michael, Supplementary Written Evidence on COVID-19 Tracing Apps to the Joint Committee on Human Rights', (6 May 2020): click here.

  • Privacy International, 'UK government Covid tracking app: what we found' (7 May 2020): click here.

  • UK Parliament, Joint Committee on Human Rights, 'Report on the contact tracing app published' (7 May 2020): click here.

  • UK Parliament, Joint Committee on Human Rights, Letter to Rt Hon Matt Hancock MP - Digital contact tracing (Data Protection) Bill (7 May 2020): click here.

  • Neville, Sarah, Tim Bradshaw and Helen Warrell, 'UK starts to build second contact tracing app', Financial Times (8 May 2020): click here.

  • 'NHS Test and Trace faces legal challenge over privacy fears', The Telegraph (2 June 2020): click here.

  • Open Rights Group, 'Government admits Test and Trace unlawful' (20 July 2020): click here.

  • Butler, Oliver, 'The Failure of the UK’s Centralised Covid-19 Contact-tracing App', blogdroiteuropéen, (24 September 2020): click here.

United States of America National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence, 'Privacy and Ethics Recommendations for Computing Applications Developed to Mitigate COVID-19 - White Paper Series on Pandemic Response and Preparedness, No. 1' : click here.

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Interoperability of contact tracing apps

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  • EU Federation Gateway Service, Github documentation: click here.
  • Luckas, Ulrich et al., Interoperability of decentralised proximity tracing systems across regions (5 May 2020): click here (preview copy pdf).
  • Wilde, Erik, 'International Interoperability of COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps: A view of goals & opportunities', apifriends (18 May 2020): click here.
  • Gkotsopoulou, Olga, 'Interoperability of contact tracing apps in EU and data protection law implications', PinG 5/2020 (September 2020): click here.

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Civil society resources on contact tracing apps

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  • Chaos Computer Club (CCC), '10 requirements for the evaluation of "Contact Tracing" apps' (6 April 2020): click here.
  • Derechos Digitales, 'Civil society from Latin America and the Caribbean demands to respect human rights when governments deploy digital technologies to fight against COVID-19' (19 March 2020): click here.
  • EDRi, 'EDRi calls for fundamental rights-based responses to COVID-19' (20 March 2020): click here.
  • noyb, 'Data Protection in times of Corona: Not a question of if but how' (30 March 2020): click here. On that page you can also find links to the latest version of the ‘Ad hocPaper (V0.2) SARS-CoV-2 Tracking under GDPR'.
  • Privacy International, 'Bluetooth tracking and COVID-19: A tech primer' (31 March 2020): click here.
  • Access Now, 'Recommendations on Privacy and Data Protection in the Fight against COVID-19' (31 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Joint civil society statement: States use of digital surveillance technologies to fight pandemic must respect human rights', hosted on Amnesty International (2 April 2020): click here.
  • Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE), 'Any Corona tracking app must be used voluntarily and be Free Software' (2 April 2020): click here.
  • Crocker, Andrew, Kurt Opsahl, and Bennett Cyphers, 'The Challenge of Proximity Apps For COVID-19 Contact Tracing', Electronic Frontier Foundation (10 April 2020): click here.
  • Bock, Kirsten et al., 'Data Protection Impact Assessment for the Corona App', Forum InformatikerInnen für Frieden und gesellschaftliche Verantwortung (FIfF) e. V. (29 April 2020): click here.
  • Electronic Frontier Foundation, 'COVID-19 and Technology: Commonly Used Terms' (30 April 2020): click here.
  • Access Now, 'Privacy and public health: the dos and don’ts for COVID-19 contact tracing apps' (4 May 2020): click here.
  • Human Rights Watch, 'Covid-19 Apps Pose Serious Human Rights Risks' (13 May 2020): click here.
  • Liberties, Liberties Network Launches Campaign to Get Impact Analyses of Covid-19 Tracing Apps in 9 EU Countries (8 June 2020): click here.
  • Foote, Natasha, 'EU Doctors call for COVID app assessments, as UK admits to GDPR breach', EURACTIV (21 July 2020): click here.

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Recorded events

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  • Council of Europe and University of Strasbourg, 'AI Breakfasts: Covid-19 - Myths and realities of tracking applications' (16 April 2020): click here (Youtube link).
  • Bart Preneel, 'Privacy Preserving Proximity Tracing Technologies prior, during and after COVID-19:  what to expect? What to avoid? Concerns and considerations for privacy and security advocates', LSEC Data Protection Webinar Series - GDPR Salon from the Salon (23 April 2020): click here (Youtube link).
  • RENEW EUROPE, 'Webinar on COVID-19 contact tracing applications', Livecasts (24 April 2020): click here (publicly available recorded webinar).
  • PACT, 'ImPACT 2020: Technology and Public Health Perspectives on Private Automated Contact Tracing' (16 April 2020): click here (full webcast recording).
  • Weblaw, 'Coronavirus: Praxisfragen aus rechtlicher Sicht V - Datenschutz' (21 April 2020): click here (DE).
  • Ada Lovelace Institute, 'Contact tracing: to centralise or not to centralise, that is the question' (1 May 2020): click here.
  • Inside Story, 'Could coronavirus tracking apps risk our privacy?', Al Jazeera (2 May 2020): click here (panel).
  • World Medical Assotiation, COVID Talks on COVID-apps (12 May 2020): click here (Youtube link).
  • 'Panel discussion on contact tracing', EUROCRYPT 2020 (14 May 2020): click here (Youtube link).
  • International Red Cross Committee, 'Data Protection in the Time of COVID-19 - 2nd Edition of the Data Protection handbook for Humanitarian Action' (3 June 2020): click here.
  • EDPS IPEN, 'Contact Tracing Apps as a large scale exercise in privacy engineering' (21 October 2020): click here.

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Academic writing, blogposts and commentaries

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  • Servick, Kelly, 'Cellphone tracking could help stem the spread of coronavirus. Is privacy the price?', Science (22 March 2020): click here.

  • University of Oxford, 'User Acceptance of Mobile Contact Tracing App' (26 March 2020): click here.

  • Ferretti, Luca, et al., 'Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing', Science (31 March 2020): click here.

  • Boehm, Franziska, Diana Dimitrova, Francesca Pichierri and Dara Hallinan, 'Tracking and Tracing Apps and data protection in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic: Data protection requirements and recommendations for the  deployment of Covid-19 tracking and tracing apps', FIZ Karlsruhe (April 2020): click here (pdf).

  • Chiusi, Fabio, 'Automated decision-making systems and the fight against COVID-19', Algorithm Watch (2 April 2020): click here.

  • de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre, et al., 'Evaluating COVID-19 contact tracing apps? Here are 8 privacy questions we think you should ask.', Computational Privacy Group (2 April 2020): click here.

  • Dwada, Sneha and Rebecca Lucas, 'Data-Driven Responses to the Coronavirus Pandemic and the Privacy Implications', RUSI (2 April 2020): click here.

  • Hudson, Alex, 'Should Phone Tracking Be Used to Punish People Breaking Coronavirus Quarantine?', Newsweek (6 April 2020): click here.

  • Lomash, Natasha, 'EU privacy experts push a decentralized approach to COVID-19 contacts tracing', TechCrunch (6 April 2020): click here.

  • Stanley, Jay and Jennifer Stisa Granick, 'White Paper: The Limits of Location Tracking in an Epidemic', American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (8 April 2020): click here.

  • Bay, Jason, 'Automated contact tracing is not a coronavirus panacea', Medium (11 April 2020): click here.

  • Anderson, Ross, 'Contact Tracing in the Real World', Light Blue Touchpaper - Security Research, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge (12 April 2020): click here.

  • Wunderlich, John, 'Testing, not tracing, is the privacy preserving response to COVID-19', Medium (13 April 2020): click here.

  • Molnar, Petra and Diego Naranjo, 'Surveillance Won’t Stop the Coronavirus', The New York Times (15 April 2020): click here.

  • O'Neill, Cathy, 'Opinion: The Covid-19 Tracking App Won’t Work', Bloomberg (15 April 2020): click here.

  • Hoepman, Japp-Henk, 'A critical look at the EU approach to contact tracing apps', personal blog (17 April 2020): click here.

  • Brill, Julie and Peter Lee, 'Preserving privacy while addressing COVID-19', Microsoft (20 April 2020): click here.

  • Meneceur, Yannick, 'Applications « Covid-19 »: où en sommes-nous ?' Les Temps électriques (21 April 2020): click here.

  • Morley, Jessica and Cowls, Josh and Taddeo, Mariarosaria and Floridi, Luciano, 'Ethical Guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 Digital Tracking and Tracing Systems', SSRN (22 April 2020): click here.

  • Kamenjasevic, Erik and Biasin, Elisabetta, 'A Commentary on Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing in the Context of the EU Legal Framework for Medical Devices (working paper)', SSRN (27 April 2020): click here.

  • Meneceur, Yannick, 'Expliquer l’emballement des applications de pistage : de l’émergence d’un « Etat des algorithmes »', Les Temps électriques (28 April 2020): click here.

  • Nature Editorial, 'Show evidence that apps for COVID-19 contact-tracing are secure and effective' (29 April 2020): click here.

  • Johnston, Anna, 'Should I download the COVID-Safe app? The privacy pros and cons', Salinger Privacy (29 April 2020): click here.

  • Bock, Kirsten and Kühne, Christian Ricardo and Mühlhoff, Rainer and Ost, Měto R. and Pohle, Jörg and Rehak, Rainer, 'Data Protection Impact Assessment for the Corona App' (29 April 2020): click here.
  • McGregor, Lorna, 'Contact-tracing Apps and Human Rights', EJIL:Talk! (30 April 2020): click here.

  • Zanfir Fortuna, Gabriela, 'European Union’s Data-Based Policy Against the Pandemic, Explained', Future of Privacy Forum (30 April 2020): click here.

  • EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, ‘Bulletin #2: Coronavirus pandemic in the EU – Fundamental rights implications with a focus on contact tracing apps’ (21 March-30 April 2020): click here.

  • Del Castillo, Aída Ponce, 'Covid-19 contact-tracing apps: how to prevent privacy from becoming the next victim', ETUI Policy Brief - European Economic, Employment and Social Policy 5/2020 (May 2020): click here.

  • Alkhatib, Ali, 'We Need to Talk About Digital Contact Tracing', personal blog (1 May 2020): click here.

  • Oswald, Marion, 'Towards a Trustworthy Coronavirus Contact Tracing App', RUSI (4 May 2020): click here.

  • Parker MJ, Fraser C, Abeler-Dörner L, et al., 'Ethics of instantaneous contact tracing using mobile phone apps in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic',

  • 'Opinion – More Debate on the Coronavirus App Is Needed', e-International Relations (5 May 2020): click here.

  • Luckas, Ulrich et al., Interoperability of decentralised proximity tracing systems across regions (5 May 2020): click here (preview copy pdf).

  • Criddle, Cristina & Leo Kelion, ‘World split between two types of app’, BBC (7 May 2020): click here.

  • Moerel, Lokke, 'Contact tracing apps: Why tech solutionism and privacy by design are not enough', IAPP (7 May 2020): click here.

  • Stout, Kristian, 'The Negative Externalities of Protecting Privacy', Truth on the Market (7 May 2020): click here.

  • Fraser, Christophe, et al.,  'Digital contact tracing: comparing the capabilities of centralised and decentralised data architectures to effectively suppress the COVID-19 epidemic whilst maximising freedom of movement and maintaining privacy', University of Oxford (7 May 2020): click here.

  • Schwartz, Paul, ‘Protecting privacy on COVID-19 surveillance apps’, IAPP (8 May 2020): click here.

  • Vogelstein, Fred and Will Knight, 'Health Officials Say 'No Thanks' to Contact-Tracing Tech', Wired (8 May 2020): click here.

  • Cannicott, Sam, 'The ethics of contact tracing apps: International perspectives', Centre for Data Ethics and Innovation Blog (12 May 2020): click here.

  • Klovig Skelton, Sebastian, 'Surveillance capitalism in the age of Covid-19', ComputerWeekly (13 May 2020): click here.

  • Dehaye, Paul-Olivier, 'Efficacy of contract tracing apps', (14 May 2020): click here.

  • 'Escaping the lockdown: Don’t rely on contact-tracing apps, The Economist (16 May 2020): click here.

  • Zwitter, Andrej and Oskar J. Gstrein, 'Big data, privacy and COVID-19 – learning from humanitarian expertise in data protection', Journal of International Humanitarian Action (18 May 2020): click here

  • Delcker, Janosch, '5 big EU countries blast Big Tech over approach to corona apps', POLITICO (26 May 2020): click here.

  • 'On Contact Tracing and Hardware Tokens', Bunnie's Blog (June 2020): click here.

  • Jeffery, Christopher, 'Contact tracing principles', Global Data Review (5 June 2020): click here.

  • International Digital Accountability Council (IDAC), 'Privacy in the Age of COVID: An IDAC Investigation of COVID-19 Apps' (5 June 2020): click here.

  • Lars Baumgärtner et al., 'Mind the GAP: Security & Privacy Risks of Contact Tracing Apps' (10 June 2020): click here.

  • Cohen, Julie, et al., 'The dangers of tech-driven solutions to COVID-19', TechStream (17 June 2020): click here.

  • Tzachor, A., Whittlestone, J., Sundaram, L. et al., 'Artificial intelligence in a crisis needs ethics with urgency', Nature Machine Intelligence (22 June 2020): click here.

  • Veale, Michael, 'Privacy is not the problem with the Apple-Google contact-tracing toolkit', The Guardian (1 July 2020): click here.

  • Singer, Natasha, 'Google Promises Privacy With Virus App but Can Still Collect Location Data', The New York Times (20 July 2020): click here.

  • Eskens, Sarah, 'Contact tracing app laws in the EU' (since September 2020): click here.

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