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Data Protection law and the COVID-19 outbreak (Version of April 2020)

The outbreak of COVID-19 and subsequent initiatives and policy measures trigger many crucial privacy and data protection law issues. Many of them are of direct interest for LSTS researchers, most notably in the context of the Brussels Privacy Hub (BPH) work on data protection in humanitarian action.

In this page we aim to share useful resources on these matters. If you have suggestions for content, please get in touch with Laura Drechsler (

**This is an archived version of our initial repository. The new repository is available here.**




  • LSTS resources
  • Tracking initiatives

  • European national resources: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyrpus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, (The) Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

  • General resources for Europe: EU institutions and agencies, Council of Europe, Academic Writing, civil society, blogs, Cybersecurity developments

  • International resources and updates: United Nations, General resources, Argentina, Australia, Bourkina Faso, Brazil, Canada, China, Georgia, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Taiwan, Tunisia, United States

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LSTS resources

Articles, commentaries and blogposts

Comande, Giovanni, Denise Amram and Gianclaudio Malgieri:

  • 'Raccogliere piu dati si puo: c'e la legge', Corriere della Sera (4 April 2020): click here (Twitter link).
  • 'The democracy of emergency at the time of the coronavirus: the virtues of privacy', Opinio Juris in comparatione, preprint (April 2020): click here.

Docksey, Christopher and Christopher Kuner, 'The Coronavirus Crisis and EU Adequacy Decisions for Data Transfers', European Law Blog (3 April 2020): click here.

González Fuster, Gloria and Mireille Hildebrandt:

  • 'Opinion: Fundamental Rights More Important Than Ever', VUB Today (9 April 2020): click here.
  •  'Bescherming van persoonsgegevens is nu meer dan ooit nodig', Knack (9 April 2020): click here.

Kuner, Christopher, 'Data crossing borders: Data Sharing and Protection in Times of Coronavirus', Verfassungsblog (15 April 2020): click here.

van Brakel, Rosamunde, 'Mensen zijn niet happig op invasieve surveillance', (16 April 2020): click here.

van Brakel, Rosamunde and Paul de Hert, 'We evolueren niet per se naa een politiestaat, maar wel blijven opletten', DeMorgen (20 April 2020): click here.

Mentions in the news

González Fuster, Gloria in: Pérez Colomé, Jordi, “¿Quieres volver al fútbol? Bájate esta app”. Los sistemas de rastreo que España aún no debate, EL PAÍS (5 May 2020): click here.

Events (past and forthcoming, in chronological order)

Online Summer Academy for Global Privacy Law 2020: Confronting the new Challenges, Brussels Privacy Hub (22-26 June 2020): click here.

Sara Mendes Roda on Digital Rights and Data Protection at the age of coronavirus, PANELFIT Monthly Chat (6 May 2020): click here.

Gloria González Fuster on Privacy and individual liberties in the COVID-19 crisis, Mexico-EU Dialogue Think Tanks - Online Dialogues Series by the Delegation of the European Union to Mexico  (5 May 2020): click here.

Mireille Hildebrandt on Corona-virus tracking apps and the APPLE GOOGLE move, Radboud University (1 May 2020): click here.

Gianclaudio Malgieri on 'La verità, vi prego, su privacy e App Covid-19', LiderLab - Dirpolis, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna (30 April 2020): click here.

Tracking initiatives

Agrawal, Aditi, 'Keeping track of surveillance in the time of coronavirus', Medianama (23 March 2020): click here.

Baker McKenzie, 'Covid-19 - Data Privacy & Security Survey' (13 March 2020): click here (pdf).

Balboni, Paolo, ' “Public health AND Privacy” and not “Public health OR Privacy”: A collection of Guidance on COVID-19', Paolo Balboni - ICT, Privacy and Data Science (26 March 2020): click here.

Bird&Bird, 'COVID-19 & Privacy & Data Protection chart' (4 April 2020): click here.

BIRN Investigative Resource Desk, 'Digital Rights in the Time of COVID-19': click here.

Dentons, 'COVID-19 Global Labor & Employment Tracker': click here ; Dentons, 'COVID-19: Data Privacy Analysis – Country Guides': click here.

EDRi, 'COVID-19 & Digital Rights: Document Pool' (since 4 May 2020): click here.

European Academy for Freedom of Information and Data Protection (EAID), 'Resources on data protection in the Corona crisis': click here.

European Commission - DIGIT/ Joinup, 'Digital Response to COVIID-19': click here.

FS0C131Y, 'Covid19 Tracker Apps': click here.

Future of Privacy Forum, 'COVID-19: Privacy & Data Protection Resources': click here.

Global Privacy Assembly, 'Data protection and Coronavirus (COVID-19) resources': click here.

Hogan Lovells, 'Coronavirus and data protection Guidance by data protection authorities': click here (pdf).

Hunton Andrews Kurth, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19) Resource Center - Privacy and Cybersecurity Pandemic Resource Center': click here.

IAPP, 'DPA guidance on COVID-19': click here.

Jones, Kyle M. L., 'COVID-19/Coronavirus and Student Privacy' (fully public Zotero Group): click here.

MyData Global, COVID-19 App List: click here (public Trello group).

OCHA Services, 'ACAPS COVID-19: Government Measures Dataset': click here.

Open Government Partnership, 'Collecting Open Government Approaches to COVID-19': click here.

Pandemic Big Brother, 'The pandemic gives new opportunities to Big Brother': click here.

Privacy International, 'Tracking the Global Response to COVID-19': click here.

noyb/GDPRHub, 'Data Protection under COVID-19 ', click here; 'Projects using personal data to combat SARS-CoV-2', click here.

Wilson Sonsini, 'COVID-19 Client Advisory Resource' click here.

Woodhams, Samuel, 'COVID-19 Digital Rights Tracker', Top10VPN: click here.

General resources for Europe

EU institutions and agencies

Coronavirus outbreak - Joint Statement European Commission, ENISA, CERT-EU and Europol (20 March 2020): click here.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), 'Checklist for hospitals preparing for the reception and care of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients' (26 February 2020): click here.

European Commission:

  • 'COMMISSION RECOMMENDATION of 8.4.2020 on a common Union toolbox for the use of technology and data to combat and exit from the COVID-19 crisis, in particular concerning mobile applications and the use of anonymised mobility data' (8 April 2020): click here (pdf).
  • 'Mobile applications to support contact tracing in the EU’s fight against COVID-19Common EU Toolbox for Member States - Version 1.0', eHealth Network (15 April 2020): click here (pdf).
  • Press Statement, 'Coronavirus: An EU approach for efficient contact tracing apps to support gradual lifting of confinement measures' (16 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Coronavirus: Guidance to ensure full data protection standards of apps fighting the pandemic' (16 April 2020): click here.

European Data Protection Board (EDPB):

  • 'Press statement of the EDPB Chair on the processing of personal data in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak' (16 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Statement of the EDPB on the processing of personal data in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak' (20 March 2020): click here.
  • 'European Data Protection Board to issue guidance on data processing in the fight against COVID-19' (3 April 2020): click here.
  • 'EDPB Letter concerning the European Commission's draft Guidance on apps supporting the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic' (14 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Guidelines 03/2020 on the processing of data concerning health for the purpose of scientific research in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak' (21 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Guidelines 04/2020 on the use of location data and contact tracing tools in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak' (21 April 2020): click here.
  • 'EDPB response to MEPs Ďuriš Nicholsonová and Jurzyca on common guidance in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemics' (23 April 2020): click here (pdf).
  • 'EDPB response to the US Mission to the EU on the transfer of personal data for the purpose of scientific research and the development of vaccines and treatments to combat COVID-19' (24 April 2020): click here (pdf).
  • 'EDPB Response to the MEP Sophie in't Veld's letter on the use of apps in fight against coronavirus' (24 April 2020): click here (pdf).

European Data Protection Supervisor (EDPS):

  • Wiewiórowski, Wojciech, 'The moment you realise the world has changed: re-thinking the EDPS Strategy' (20 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Letter to DG CONNECT of the European Commission on monitoring of COVID-19 spread' (25 March 2020): click here.
  • Wiewiórowski, Wojciech, 'EU Digital Solidarity: a call for a pan-European approach against the pandemic' (6 April 2020): click here. The video of the address can be found on the EDPS website.
  • The European Data Protection Supervisor's Answers to the questions issued by the Committtee of European Affairs of the Senate of tthe Republic of France (27 April 2020): click here (pdf).
  • Wiewiórowski, Wojciech, 'Carrying the torch in times of darkness' (30 April 2020): click here.

European Parliament Think Tank, 'Ten technologies to fight Coronavirus' (April 2020): click here.

Europol, 'Catching the virus - cybercrime, disinformation and the COVID-19 pandemic' (3 April 2020): click here.

EU Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA), 'Press release: Tips for cybersecurity when working from home | The EU Agency for Cybersecurity shares its top tips for teleworking in times of Covid-19' (24 March 2020): click here.

EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), 'Coronavirus Pandemic in the EU: Fundamental rights implications - Bulletin #1' (8 April 2020): click here (pdf).

Ferguson, Clare, 'COVID-19: Novel coronavirus outbreak in Europe and the EU response', EP Think Tank (20 March 2020):  click here.

Lomas, Natasha, 'Telco metadata grab is for modelling COVID-19 spread, not tracking citizens, says EC', TechCrunch (27 March 2020): click here.

Stolton, Samuel, 'Commission touts importance of ‘data for common good’ amid COVID-19 privacy concerns', Euractive (25 March 2020): click here.

Council of Europe

Joint Statement on the Right to data protection in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by Alessandra Pierucci, Chair of the Committee of Convention 108 and Jean-Philippe Walter, Data Protection Commissioner of the Council of Europe (30 March 2020): click here.

Joint Statement on Digital Contact Tracing by Alessandra Pierucci, Chair of the Committee of Convention 108 and Jean-Philippe Walter, Data Protection Commissioner of the Council of Europe (28 April 2020): click here.

Academic writing, civil society, blogs

Access Now:

  • 'Recommendations on Privacy and Data Protection in the Fight against COVID-19' (31 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Privacy and public health: the dos and don’ts for COVID-19 contact tracing apps' (4 May 2020): click here.

Bart Preneel, 'Privacy Preserving Proximity Tracing Technologies prior, during and after COVID-19:  what to expect? What to avoid? Concerns and considerations for privacy and security advocates', LSEC Data Protection Webinar Series - GDPR Salon from the Salon (23 April 2020): click here (Youtube link).

Bock, Kirsten et al., 'Data Protection Impact Assessment for the Corona App', Forum InformatikerInnen für Frieden und gesellschaftliche Verantwortung (FIfF) e. V. (29 April 2020): click here.

Brewster, Thomas, 'Two At 2 Million Guinea Pigs And Counting: The Remarkable Rise Of Self-Monitoring In The Time Of Coronavirus', Forbes (27 March 2020): click here.

Cornerstone Barristers, 'Data Protection: A guide for Mutual Aid groups' (23 March 2020): click here.

Cosgrove, Cathy, 'COVID-19 response and data protection law in the EU and US', IAPP (15 March 2020): click here.

Digital Society Blog, 'Perils and Opportunities' Alexander von Humboldt Institut fuer Internet und Gesellschaft (30 April 2020): click here.

DLA Piper, 'EU Data Protection: COVID-19', Privacy Matters (19 March 2020): click here.

EDRi, 'EDRi calls for fundamental rights-based responses to COVID-19' (20 March 2020): click here.

Espinoza, Javier, 'Coronavirus prompts delays and overhaul of EU digital strategy', Financial Times (23 March 2020): click here.

Etteldorf, Christina, 'EU Member State Data Protection Authorities Deal with COVID-19: An Overview', European Data Protection Law Review Vol 2 (2020), pre-print for COVID-19 Special (April 2020): click here.

European Law Institute (ELI), 'ELI Principles for the COVID-19 crisis' (28 April 2020): click here (pdf).

Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE), 'Any Corona tracking app must be used voluntarily and be Free Software' (2 April 2020): click here.

French, Martin and Monahan, Torin, 'Dis-ease Surveillance: How Might Surveillance Studies Address COVID-19?', Surveillance and Society, Vol 18 No 1 (2020) Open Issue (16 March 2020): click here.

Graham, Nick et al., 'COVID-19: Data Protection Checklist', Dentons (13 March 2020): click here.

Gray, Stacey, 'A Closer Look at Location Data: Privacy and Pandemics', Future of Privacy Forum (25 March 2020): click here.

Gstrein, Oskar J. and Andrej. J Zwitter, 'Using Location Data to Control the Coronavirus Pandemic', Verfasssungsblog (20 March 2020): click here.

Hoepman, Japp-Henk, 'A critical look at the EU approach to contact tracing apps', personal blog (17 April 2020): click here.

Ikeda, Scott, 'Coronavirus Adds an Extra Layer of Challenge to Collection and Handling of Health Data Under the GDPR', CPO Magazine (23 March 2020): click here.

Johnston, Anna, 'Should I download the COVID-Safe app? The privacy pros and cons', Salinger Privacy (29 April 2020): click here.

Kamenjasevic, Erik and Biasin, Elisabetta, 'A Commentary on Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing in the Context of the EU Legal Framework for Medical Devices (working paper)', SSRN (27 April 2020): click here.

Knight, Will, 'The Value and Ethics of Using Phone Data to Monitor Covid-19', Wired (18 March 2020): click here.

Lambert, Amy, 'Coronavirus and the GDPR – keep calm and carry on?', fieldfisher (10 March 2020): click here.

'Opinion – More Debate on the Coronavirus App Is Needed', e-International Relations (5 May 2020): click here.

Lomash, Natasha:

  • 'What are the rules wrapping privacy during COVID-19?', TechCrunch (20 March 2020): click here.
  • 'EU privacy experts push a decentralized approach to COVID-19 contacts tracing', TechCrunch (6 April 2020): click here.

Luckas, Ulrich et al., Interoperability of decentralised proximity tracing systems across regions (5 May 2020): click here (preview copy pdf).

Manacourt, Vincent, Janosch Delcker, Mark Scott and Laurens Cerulus, 'In fight against coronavirus, governments embrace surveillance', POLITICO (25 March 2020): click here.

McGregor, Lorna, 'Contact-tracing Apps and Human Rights', EJIL:Talk! (30 April 2020): click here.

Meneceur, Yannick:

  • 'Applications « Covid-19 »: où en sommes-nous ?' Les Temps électriques (21 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Expliquer l’emballement des applications de pistage : de l’émergence d’un « Etat des algorithmes »', Les Temps électriques (28 April 2020): click here.

Mills, Peter, 'Liberty, solidarity and the biopolitics of COVID-19', Nuffield Council on Bioethics (1 April 2020): click here.

Mole, Ariane, Clara Clark Nevola, Debora Stella, Ruth Boardman, Katja Djurhuus, Zoltan Tarjan, 'COVID-19 in the workplace: differing guidance from data protection authorities', Bird & Bird (March 2020): click here.

Morley, Jessica and Cowls, Josh and Taddeo, Mariarosaria and Floridi, Luciano, 'Ethical Guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 Digital Tracking and Tracing Systems', SSRN (22 April 2020): click here.

Morozov, Evgeny, 'The tech ‘solutions’ for coronavirus take the surveillance state to the next level', The Guardian (15 April 2020): click here.


  • 'Data Protection in ties of Corona: Not a question of if but how' (30 March 2020): click here; 'Ad hocPaper (V0.2) SARS-CoV-2 Tracking under GDPR' (29 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Netflix & Chill – What streaming services do while you’re on the couch' (31 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Interrupted transmission - zooming in on video conferencing privacy policies' (2 April 2020): click here.

O'Neill, Cathy, 'Opinion: The Covid-19 Tracking App Won’t Work', Bloomberg (15 April 2020): click here.

Orlando, Domenico, 'Data protection in the Time of Coronavirus', KU Leuven CiTiP blog (12 March 2020): click here.

Osborne, Charlie, 'European organization launches to oversee coronavirus, contact-tracking mobile apps', ZDNet (1 April 2020): click here.

Petitjean, Sophie, 'From tracking the virus to tracking people', Euranet Plus News Agency (7 April 2020): click here.

Pilz, Carlo and Stefan Hessel, 'Impact of Covid-19 on processing contracts: written form and prohibition on working from home?', reuschlaw (March 2020): click here.

Pisa, Michael, 'COVID-19, Information Problems, and Digital Surveillance', Center for Global Development (20 March 2020): click here.

, 'How is data being used to combat COVID-19? Privacy regulators respond', Linklaters (11 March 2020): click here.

Renda, Andrea, 'Will privacy be one of the victims of COVID-19?, CEPS (23 March 2020): click here.

Scott, Marcus J., 'Big data versus COVID-19: opportunities and privacy challenges', Bruegel (23 March 2020): click here.

Serrano, Rui, 'The Danger of COVID 19 Data-Lakes', LinkedIn Blogpost (31 March 2020): click here.

Servick, Kelly, 'Cellphone tracking could help stem the spread of coronavirus. Is privacy the price?', Science (22 March 2020): click here.

Singer, Natasha and Sang-Hun, Choe,'As Coronavirus Surveillance Escalates, Personal Privacy Plummets', The New York Times (23 March 2020): click here.

StuppCatherine and Broughton, Kristin, 'Companies Walk Fine Line on Employee Data Amid Coronavirus Outbreak', The Wall Street Journal (12 March 2020): click here.

The Global Philosopher, 'Pandemic ethics - Michael Sandel and an international panel debate the right way to respond to coronavirus', BBC (1 April 2020): click here (podcast).

Timmons, John and Hickman, Tim, 'COVID-19 and Data Protection Compliance', White & Case LLP (26 March 2020): click here.

University of Oxford, 'User Acceptance of Mobile Contact Tracing App': click here.

Ventrella, Emanuele, 'COVID-19 and Data Protection in Emergency Circumstances', Trilateral Research (16 March 2020): click here.

Yun Chee, Foo, 'Vodafone, Deutsche Telekom, 6 other telcos to help EU track virus', Reuters (25 March 2020): click here ; Vitard, Alice, 'Covid-19: Orange, Deutsche Telekom et six autres opérateurs télécoms vont pister leurs clients', L' Usine Digitale (26 March 2020): click here.

Zanfir Fortuna, Gabriela: 

  • 'EU DPAs Issue Green and Red Lights for Processing Health Data During the COVID-19 Epidemic', Future of Privacy Forum (10 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Why data protection law is uniquely equipped to let us fight a pandemic with personal data', pdpEcho (6 April 2020): click here.

  • 'European Union’s Data-Based Policy Against the Pandemic, Explained', Future of Privacy Forum (30 April 2020): click here.

Cybersecurity developments

Georgopoulou, Suzanna and Williams, Amelia, 'Europe: Organisations working from home during Coronavirus ‘must ensure appropriate security measures’', One Trust Data Guidance (2 April 2020): click here.

Grober, David, 'Roundup: Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic delivers array of cybersecurity challenges', ZDnet: click here.

Lakshmanan, Ravie, 'Hackers created Thousand of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Related Sites As Bait', The Hacker News (18 March 2020): click here.

Menn, Joseph, 'Cybersecurity experts come together to fight coronavirus-related hacking', World Economic Forum (27 March 2020): click here.

Tidy, Joe, 'Coronavirus: How hackers are preying on fears of Covid-19', BBC (13 March 2020): click here.

International resources and updates

United Nations

Human Rights Committee, 'Statement on derogations from the Covenant in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic' (24 April 2020): click here (doc).

UN Human Rights Experts, 'COVID-19: States should not abuse emergency measures to suppress human rights' (16 March 2020): click here.

General resources

Alkhatib, Ali, 'We Need to Talk About Digital Contact Tracing', personal blog (1 May 2020): click here.

Anderson, Ross, 'Contact Tracing in the Real World', Light Blue Touchpaper - Security Research, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge (12 April 2020): click here.

Angwin, Julia, 'Will Google’s and Apple’s COVID Tracking Plan Protect Privacy?', The Markup (14 April 2020): click here.

Apple Newsroom, 'Apple and Google partner on COVID-19 contact tracing technology' (10 April 2020): click here.

Bay, Jason, 'Automated contact tracing is not a coronavirus panacea', Medium (11 April 2020): click here.

Bellamy, Bojana, 'Covid-19 Meets Privacy: A Case Study forAccountability', Center for Information Policy Leadership (April 2020): click here (pdf).

Benson, Jeff, 'Privacy Safeguards in Apple-Google Platform Could Be Abused, Experts Say', Digital Privacy News (14 April 2020): click here.

, 'Filosofen over de corona-app: begrijpt de overheid privacy wel?', Trouw (10 April 2020): click here.

Nellis, Stephen and Paresh Dave, 'Apple, Google ban use of location tracking in contact tracing apps', Reuters (4 May 2020): click here.

Brill, Julie and Peter Lee, 'Preserving privacy while addressing COVID-19', Microsoft (20 April 2020): click here.

Carson, Angelique, 'The Privacy Advisor Podcast: Does privacy even matter right now?', IAPP (17 April 2020): click here (podcast).

Cellan-Jones, Rory, 'Coronavirus: Privacy in a pandemic', BBC (2 April 2020): click here.

Chesler, Caren, 'Coronavirus will turn your office into a surveillance state', Wired (4 May 2020): click here.

Chiusi, Fabio, 'Automated decision-making systems and the fight against COVID-19', Algorithm Watch (2 April 2020): click here.

Clover, Juli, 'Apple's Exposure Notification System: Everything You Need to Know', MacRumors (4 May 2020): click here.

Crocker, Andrew, Kurt Opsahl, and Bennett Cyphers, 'The Challenge of Proximity Apps For COVID-19 Contact Tracing', Electronic Frontier Foundation (10 April 2020): click here.

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre and Houssia, Florimond, 'Can we fight COVID-19 without resorting to mass surveillance?', Computational Privacy Group (21 March 2020): click here.

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre, et al., 'Evaluating COVID-19 contact tracing apps? Here are 8 privacy questions we think you should ask.', Computational Privacy Group (2 April 2020): click here.

Derechos Digitales, 'Civil society from Latin America and the Caribbean demands to respect human rights when governments deploy digital technologies to fight against COVID-19' (19 March 2020): click here.

Dwada, Sneha and Rebecca Lucas, 'Data-Driven Responses to the Coronavirus Pandemic and the Privacy Implications', RUSI (2 April 2020): click here.

Editorial Board, 'Opinion: Privacy Cannot Be a Casualty of the Coronavirus', The New York Times (7 April 2020): click here.

Ferretti, Luca, et al., 'Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing', Science (31 March 2020): click here.

Fidler, David P., 'Cybersecurity in the Time of COVID-19', Council on Foreign Relations (30 March 2020): click here.

Future of Privacy Forum, 'FPF and AASA Release Student Privacy Guidance to Help Schools Manage COVID-19 Response' (20 March 2020): click here.

Goldenfein, Jake and Ben Green, Salomé Viljoen, 'Privacy Versus Health Is a False Trade-Off', Jakobin (27 April 2020): click here.

Gray, Rosie and Caroline Haskins, 'The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Set Off A Massive Expansion Of Government Surveillance. Civil Libertarians Aren't Sure What To Do.', Buzzfeed news (30 March 2020): click here.

Hao, Karen, 'Coronavirus is forcing a trade-off between privacy and public health', MIT Technology Review (24 March 2020): click here.

Hudson, Alex, 'Should Phone Tracking Be Used to Punish People Breaking Coronavirus Quarantine?', Newsweek (6 April 2020): click here.

Inside Story, 'Could coronavirus tracking apps risk our privacy?', Al Jazeera (2 May 2020): click here (panel).

'Joint civil society statement: States use of digital surveillance technologies to fight pandemic must respect human rights', hosted on Amnesty International (2 April 2020): click here.

Kaye, Kate, '‘This could get Orwellian really fast’: COVID-19 could end privacy as we know it', FastCompany (26 March 2020): click here.

Macintyre, Amber, 'As The World Goes Online, Politics is There to Meet Us', Tactical Tech (3 April 2020): click here.

Madzou, Lofred, 'Is AI trustworthy enough to help us fight COVID-19?', World Economic Forum (1 May 2020): click here.

Molnar, Petra and Diego Naranjo, 'Surveillance Won’t Stop the Coronavirus', The New York Times (15 April 2020): click here.

Morales Antoniazzi, Mariela and Silvia Steininger, 'How to Protect Human Rights in Times of Corona? Lessons from the Inter-American Human Rights System', EJIL:Talk! (1 May 2020): click here.

Nature Editorial, 'Show evidence that apps for COVID-19 contact-tracing are secure and effective' (29 April 2020): click here.

Norwegian Red Cross, 'Somaliland: Corona transmissions stopped by mobile phone' (6 April 2020): click here.

OECD Civil Society Internet Society Advisory Council (CSISAC), 'NGO and Expert Statement to the OECD Secretary General on COVID-19, Privacy, and Fundamental Rights', The Public Voice (6 April 2020): click here.

Okuda, Soraya, et al., 'Keeping Each Other Safe When Virtually Organizing Mutual Aid', Electronic Frontier Foundation (30 March 2020): click here.

Pistor, Katharina, "Law in the Time of COVID-19", Columbia Law School (2020): click here (e-Book).

Power, Ben, 'Coronavirus is expanding the surveillance state. How will this play out?', The Washington Post (27 March 2020): click here.

Privacy International:

  • 'Bluetooth tracking and COVID-19: A tech primer' (31 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Schools and Covid-19' (24 April 2020): click here.

Radical AI Podcast, 'Apple & Google Partner to Promote Coronavirus Contact Tracing. Should You be Worried? with Seda Gurses', PodBean (15 April 2020): click here (podcast).

Ringrose, Katelyn, 'Privacy and Pandemics: A Thoughtful Discussion', Future of Privacy Forum (27 March 2020): click here.

RENEW EUROPE, 'Webinar on COVID-19 contact tracing applications', Livecasts (24 April 2020): click here (publicly available recorded webinar).

Roth, Andrew, Stephanie Kirchgaessner, Daniel Boffey, Oliver Holmes, and Helen Davidson, 'Growth in surveillance may be hard to scale back after pandemic, experts say', The Guardian (14 April 2020): click here.

Selinger, Evan, 'The Lasting Privacy and Civil Liberties Impacts of Responses to COVID-19', OECD Forum (15 April 2020): click here.

Sharon Yam, Shui-yin, 'Coronavirus and surveillance technology: How far will governments go? Governments mobilized digital surveillance to contain the spread of the virus', Global Voices AdVox (25 March 2020): click here.

Sharon, Tamar, 'When Google and Apple get privacy right, is there still something wrong?', Medium (15 April 2020): click here.

Stanley, Jay and Jennifer Stisa Granick, 'White Paper: The Limits of Location Tracking in an Epidemic', American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (8 April 2020): click here.

Stein, Samantha, 'How to restore data privacy after the coronavirus pandemic', World Economic Forum (31 March 2020): click here.

Swire, Peter, 'Security, Privacy and the Coronavirus: Lessons From 9/11' (24 March 2020): click here.

Tahir, Darius, 'Health privacy falling in pandemic times?', POLITICO Morning eHealth newsletter (25 March 2020): click here.

Toh, Amos, 'Big Data Could Undermine the Covid-19 Response', Wired (12 April 2020): click here.

Truth on the Market and International Center for Law and Economics (ICLE), 'The Law, Economics, and Policy of the COVID-19 Pandemic - Series of Blogposts' (since 17 March 2020): click here.

Wright, Nicholas, 'Coronavirus and the Future of Surveillance: Democracies Must Offer an Alternative to Authoritarian Solutions', Foreign Affairs (6 April 2020): click here.

Wunderlich, John, 'Testing, not tracing, is the privacy preserving response to COVID-19', Medium (13 April 2020): click here.


Agency on Access to Public Information, 'Tratamiento de datos personales ante el Coronavirus' (11 March 2020): click here.


The Office of the Australian Information Commissioner (OAIC):

  • 'COVID-19' (updated 18 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): Understanding your privacy obligations to your staff – Agencies': click here.

Australian Government - Department of Health:

  • 'Privacy policy for COVIDSafe app': click here.
  • 'COVIDSafe Application Privacy Impact Assessment' (25 April 2020): click here.

Asghar, Hassan, et al., 'On the privacy of TraceTogether, the Singaporean COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app, and recommendations for Australia', University of Melbourne (6 April 2020): click here.

Greenleaf, Graham and Kemp, Katharine:

  • 'Australia's COVIDSafe App needs more legal protections and transparency to gain trust', UNSW Sydney (1 May 2020): click here.
  • 'The COVIDSafe Bill: privacy protections improved, but more needed', UNSW Sydney (5 May 2020): click here.
  • 'The COVIDSafe bill doesn’t go far enough to protect our privacy. Here’s what needs to change', The Conversation (5 May 2020): click here.

Sharwood, Simon, 'Australian state will install home surveillance hardware to make sure if you're in virus isolation, you stay there', The Register (1 April 2020): click here.

Bourkina Faso

Commission de l'informatique et des libertes, 'Message de la CIL sur la pandémie de coronavirus (COVID-19)': click here (pdf).


Iglesias Keller, Clara and Pereira, Jane R. G. 'Data protection in times of COVID-19: the risks of surveillance in Brazil', Internet Policy Review (2 April 2020): click here.

Mari, Angelica, 'Coronavirus crisis threatens data protection regulations in Brazil', ZDNet (26 March 2020): click here.


Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada:

  • 'Privacy and the COVID-19 outbreak' (20 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Commissioner publishes framework to assess privacy-impactful initiatives in response to COVID‑19' (17 April 2020): click here.


Hope, Alicia, 'Chinese Authorities Employ AI-Powered Smart Glasses for Detecting Coronavirus Infections'

Kuo, Lily, 'The new normal: China's excessive coronavirus public monitoring could be here to stay', The Guardian (9 March 2020): click here.

Mozur, Paul, Raymond Zhong and Aaron Krolik, 'In Coronavirus Fight, China Gives Citizens a Color Code, With Red Flags', The New York Times (1 March 2020): click here.

  • Internet watchdog restates data protection rules amid leaks', Technode (13 February 2020): click here.
  • 'Baidu releases open-source tool to detect faces without masks', Technode (14 February 2020): click here.


State Inspector's Service, 'Statement of the State Inspector’s Service' (23 March 2020): click here.

Hong Kong

Privacy Commissioner for Hong Kong:

  • 'Privacy Commissioner Responds to Privacy Issues Arising from Mandatory Quarantine Measures and Provides Updates on Doxxing' (12 February 2020): click here.
  • 'The Use of Information on Social Media for Tracking Potential Carriers of COVID-19' (26 February 2020): click here.
  • 'Response to media enquiry on privacy issues arising from COVID-19' (21 Μarch 2020): click here.

Saiidi, Uptin, 'Hong Kong is putting electronic wristbands on arriving passengers to enforce coronavirus quarantine', CNBC (18 March 2020): click here.


Privacy Protection Authority, 'Israeli Privacy Protection Authority's Guidelines on Privacy Aspects of the Coronavirus Epidemic (COVID-19)' (23 March 2020): click here.

Ackerman, Gwen and Yaacov Benmeleh, 'Israeli Spyware Firm Wants to Track Data to Stop Coronavirus Spreading', Bloomberg (17 March 2020): click here.

Elkin-Koren, Niva, 'The rule of law in the time of coronavirus outbreak', Internet Policy Review (18 March 2020): click here.

Jaffe-Hoffman, Maayan, 'Israel plans to use counter-terrorism tools to stop spread of coronavirus', The Jerusalem Post (15 March 2020): click here.


Personal Information Protection Commission, 'Handling of personal data for preventing the spread of Novel-Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease' (2 April 2020): click here.


INAI 'Ante casos de COVID-19, INAI emite recomendaciones para tratamiento de datos personales' (13 March 2020): click here.

New Zealand

New Zealand Privacy Commissioner, 'Covid-19 and privacy FAQs' (13 March 2020): click here.


Aamir, Adnan, 'Pakistan: Patient data held by Balochistan health authorities leaks to social media', Balochistan Voices (23 March 2020): click here.


Philippines National Privacy Commission:

  • 'Statement by Privacy Commissioner Raymund Enriquez Liboro on the Declaration of Public Health Emergency in Relation to COVID-19' (10 March 2020): click here.
  • 'NPC PHE BULLETIN No. 3: Collect what is necessary. Disclose only to the proper authority - Data Protection in times of emergency' (19 March 2020): click here.


Ilyushina, Mary, 'How Russia is using authoritarian tech to curb coronavirus', CNN (29 March 2020): click here.

The Moscow Times, 'How Do Moscow’s Coronavirus Lockdown Passes Work?' (13 April 2020): click here.


Singapore Personal Data Protection Commission, 'Advisory on Collection of Personal Data for COVID-19 Contact Tracing' (13 February 2020): click here.

Singapore Government Agency, 'Help speed up contact tracing with TraceTogether - A new app uses a community-driven approach to identify close contacts of users' (21 March 2020): click here.

Roy Choudhury, Saheli, 'Singapore says it will make its contact tracing tech freely available to developers', CNBC (25 March 2020): click here.

GovTech Singapore, '6 things about OpenTrace, the open-source code published by the TraceTogether team' (9 April 2020): click here.

South Africa

Information Regulator, 'Guidance Note on the processing of personal information in the management and containment of  COVID-19 pandemic in terms of the protection of personal information Act of 2013 (POPIA)' (18 March 2020): click here (pdf).

South Korea

Park, Sangchul, Gina Jeehyun Choi, and Haksoo Ko, 'Information Technology–Based Tracing Strategy in Response to COVID-19 in South Korea—Privacy Controversies' (23 April 2020), click here.

Zastrow, Mark, 'South Korea is reporting intimate details of COVID-19 cases: has it helped?', nature (18 March 2020): click here.


Martin, Nicholas, 'The Role of Digital Tools in Taiwan’s Response to Covid-19', Forum Privatheit (1 May 2020): click here.


Instance Nationale de Protection des donnees personelles, 'Recommandations de l'Instance Nationale de Protection des donnees personelles relatif a la protection des donnees personnelles en periode de COVID-19' (27 March 2020): click here (pdf).

United States

US Department of Homeland Security - CISA, 'Defending Against COVID-19 Cyber Scams' (6 March 2020): click here.

US Department of Health and Human Services:

  • 'HIPAA and COVID-19': click here.
  • Office for Civil Rights, 'COVID-19 and HIPAA: Disclosures to law enforcement, paramedics,other first responders and public health authorities': click here (pdf).

US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 'What You Should Know About the ADA, the Rehabilitation Act, and COVID-19' (19 March 2020): click here.

Senate of the United States, 'Bill: COVID–19 Consumer 4Data Protection Act of 2020': click here.

State of California Department of Justice, 'Attorney General Becerra Reminds Consumers of their Data Privacy Rights During the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency' (10 April 2020): click here.

Finklea, Kristin, 'COVID-19: Cybercrime Opportunities and Law Enforcement Response', Congressional Research Service (19 March 2020): click here.

Cox, Joseph, 'Surveillance Company Says It's Deploying 'Coronavirus-Detecting' Cameras in US', Motherboard Tech by Vice (17 March 2020): click here.

Duball, Joe, 'California attorney general's office: No delay on CCPA enforcement amid COVID-19', IAPP (24 March 2020): click here.

Greenwood, Faine, 'Google Wants Your Data in Exchange for a Coronavirus Test', Foreign Policy (30 March 2020): click here.

Harvey, James et al. 'Leveraging Location Data to Fight COVID-19 – How the U.S. Compares to the Rest of the World', Alston & Bird - Privacy & Cybersecurity Blog (23 March 2020): click here.

Laird, Elisabeth, 'Schools Do Not Have to Sacrifice Students’ Privacy to Continue Schooling', Center for Democracy and Technology (25 March 2020): click here.

Lapowsky, Issie, 'Facebook data can help measure social distancing in California' (17 March 2020): click here.

McDermott, 'Privacy, HIPAA, Security and GDPR – COVID-19 Considerations' (March 2020): click here.

Nyczepir, Dave, 'An unprecedented wave of personal data could be heading to federal agencies', Fedscoop (3 April 2020): click here.

Ovide, Shira, 'Can Our Phones Stop a Pandemic?', The New York Times (10 April 2020): click here.

Scola, Nancy, 'Big Tech faces a ‘Big Brother’ trap on coronavirus', POLITICO (18 March 2020): click here.

Stanley, Jay and Jennifer Stisa Granick, 'The Limits of Location Tracking in an Epidemic', ACLU White Paper (8 April 2020): click here.

Temple, James, 'How San Francisco plans to trace every coronavirus case and contact', MIT Technology Review (8 April 2020): click here.

Weintraub Schifferle, Lisa, 'COPPA Guidance for Ed Tech Companies and Schools during the Coronavirus', Federal Trade Commission (FTC) (9 April 2020): click here.

Calo, Ryan, 'Enlisting Big Data in the Fight Against Coronavirus', Written testimony at the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation (9 April 2020): click here.

European national resources


Information and Data Protection Commissioner, 'Guidelines on the protection of personal data in the context of the measures taken against COVID-19' (20 March 2020): click here.


Agència andorrana de protecció de dades, 'INFORMACIÓ DE LES MESURES PRESES ARRAN DEL COVID-19 I RECOMANACIONS DE L'AGÈNCIA' (17 March 2020): click here.


Austrian Data Protection Authority, 'Information der Datenschutzbehörde zum Coronavirus (Covid-19)' (16 March 2020): click here.

Al-Youssef, Muzayen, Laurin Lorenz, Fabian Schmid, 'Was passiert mit unseren Grundrechten in Zeiten von Corona?', Der Standard (17 March 2020): click here.

EPICCENTER.WORKS, 'Eine Analyse der COVID-19 Gesetze' (16 March 2020): click here.

Moechel, Erich, 'Österreich als EU-Testlabor für Corona-Apps', FM4.ORF (19 April 2020): click here.

ORF.AT, 'Nutzung von Handydaten als Gratwanderung' (31 March 2020): click here.

VOL.AT, 'Coronavirus - Telekom-Daten deuten auf Wirksamkeit der Maßnahmen', Vorarlberg Online (17 March 2020): click here.


Belgian Data Protection Authority (APD):

  • 'Recommendation n° 02/2020 du 31 janvier 2020: La portée de l'obligation de conclure un protocole afin de formaliser les communications de données à caractère personnel en provenance du secteur public fédéral' (updated on 25 March 2020): click here (FR), click here (NL).

  • 'COVID-19 et traitement de données à caractère personnel sur le lieu de travail' (13 March 2020): click here (FR), click here (NL).

EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), 'Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak in the EU Fundamental Rights Implications (Country report: Belgium)' (23 March 2020): click here.

Fiten, Bernd and Somers, Geert, 'COVID-19: Can health data be processed? + FAQ', Timelex (23 March 2020): click here.

Le Soir, 'Bruxelles: le traçage débute sa phase test le 4 mai, démarrage complet le 11 mai' (29 April 2020): click here.

Spinks, Jason:

  • 'Belgian app aids socially distant shopping', The Brussels Times (30 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Belgians develop anonymous contact tracing system', The Brussels Times (28 April 2020): click here.

Vanhecke, Nikolas and Roeland Termote, 'Telecomdata worden ingeschakeld tegen coronavirus', De Standaard (20 March 2020): click here.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Personal Data Protection Agency in Bosnia and Herzegovina:

  • 'Saopštenje za javnost vezano za obradu ličnih podataka u kontekstu aktivnosti izazvane pandemijom korona virusa' (24 March 2020): click here (text document) - available in Bosanski, Hrvatski and Srpski.
  • 'Zabrana objavljivanja ličnih podataka o licima koja su pozitivna na korona virus kao i licima kojima su određene mjere izolacije i samoizolacije' (25 March 2020): click here (text document) - available in Bosanski, Hrvatski and Srpski.

Karanovic Partners, 'Data Protection Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Prohibits Publication of Personal Data of Persons Infected by COVID-19' (March 2020): click here.


Croatian Personal Data Protection Agency, 'Obrada osobnih podataka o zdravlju u kontekstu izvanredne situacije izazvane COVID-19 virusom' (18 March 2020): click here.


Office of the Commissioner for Personal Data Protection, 'Announcement of the Commissioner for Personal Data Protection concerning the measures taken for the pandemic management' (Ανακοίνωση Επιτρόπου Προστασίας Δεδομένων Προσωπικού Χαρακτήρα σχετικά με τα μέτρα που λαμβάνονται για την διαχείριση της πανδημίας) (27 March 2020): click here.

Sigmalive, 'Τίθεται σε λειτουργία η εφαρμογή ιχνηλάτησης για κορωνοϊό στην Κύπρο' (The coronavirus tracing app becomes operational in Cyprus) (5 April 2020): click here.

Czech Republic

Czech Data Protection Authority:

  • 'ÚOOÚ ke zpracování osobních údajů v souvislosti s šířením koronaviru' (13 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Ke zpracování osobních údajů v rámci opatření proti šíření koronaviru' (19 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Moderními technologiemi kontrolují karanténu hlavně asijské země' (27 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Tisková zpráva: Úřad se vyjádřil k mimořádnému opatření ministerstva zdravotnictví v souvislosti s projektem chytrá karanténa' (2 April 2020): click here.


Danish Data Protection Authority, 'Hvordan er det med GDPR og coronavirus?' (5 March 2020): click here.

Cooper, Dan and Luca Tosoni, 'Danish Supervisory Authority Issues COVID-19 Guidance', Inside Privacy (6 March 2020): click here.


Estonian Data Protection Inspectorate, 'Kas töötajat saab kohustada rääkima kõike oma tervislikust seisundist?' (16 March 2020): click here.


Finnish Data Protection Authority, 'Tietosuoja ja koronaviruksen leviämisen hillitseminen' (12 March 2020): click here.

Vahti, Jukka, 'Vaasa Central Hospital pilots the Ketju application for helping in the identification of coronavirus exposures', SITRA (28 April 2020): click here.


French Data Protection Authority (CNIL):

  • 'Coronavirus (Covid-19) : les rappels de la CNIL sur la collecte de données personnelles' (6 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Recherches sur le COVID-19 : la CNIL se mobilise' (26 March 2020): click here.
  • Délibération n° 2020-046 du 24 avril 2020 portant avis sur un projet d’application mobile dénommée « StopCovid » (24 April 2020): click here (pdf)., 'CORONAVIRUS – COVID-19: Appel au renforcement des mesures de vigilance cybersécurité' (16 March 2020): click here.

Ministère de l'intérieur, 'Attestation de déplacement dérogatoire et justificatif de déplacement professionnel' (25 March 2020): click here.

Griguer, Merav and Franco, Sharone, 'COVID-19: Coronavirus pandemic and cybersecurity, when cyber criminals exploit the health crisis in France', Bird&Bird (March 2020): click here.

Hunton Andrews Kurth, 'CNIL Recalls Data Protection Rules in the Context of the COVID-19 Outbreak', Privacy and Information Security Law Blog (20 March 2020): click here.

La Quadrature du Net:

  • 'Contre le COVID-19, la géolocalisation déjà autorisée' (19 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Covid-19 : l’attaque des drones' (1 April 2020): click here.

Inria, '«Contact tracing»: Bruno Sportisse, PDG d’Inria, donne quelques éléments pour mieux comprendre les enjeux' (18 April 2020): click here.

Schuck, Nathalie, 'Coronavirus : pour vaincre l’épidémie, faut-il traquer les Français ?', Le Parisien (24 March 2020): click here.

'French Supervisory Authority issues COVID-19 Guidance', Inside Privacy (8 March 2020): click here.


Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (BfDI):

  • 'DSK gibt Hinweise zu Datenschutz und Corona' (13 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Datenschutzrechtliche Informationen zur Corona-Krise': click here.

Baden-Wuerttemberg: Der Landesbeauftragten für den Datenschutz und die Informationsfreiheit, 'FAQ Corona' (March 2020): click here.

Unabhängiges Landeszentrum für Datenschutz Schleswig-Holstein, 'Datenschutz: Plötzlich im Homeoffice - was nun?' (24 March 2020): click here

Die Landesbeauftragte für den Datenschutz und für das Recht auf Akteneinsicht Brandenburg, 'Hinweise für Schulen und Lehrkräfte zur datenschutzgerechten Gestaltung des selbstständigen Lernens während der Corona-Pandemie' (23 March 2020): click here.

LexCorona (wiki), 'Dokumente der Datenschutz-Aufsichtsbehörden': click here.

Busvine, Douglas, 'German tech startups plead for European approach to corona tracing app', Reuters (14 April 2020): click here.

CILIP, 'Corona Epidemie: Tagebuch der inneren Sicherheit' (18 March 2020): click here. - Blog zu Datenschutz und Datensicherheit der KINAST Rechtsanwälte / - Data security and data protection blog of KINAST Attorneys at Law, 'Themenreihe Datenschutz und Corona / Series on Data Protection and Corona' : click here for (DE) and (EN).

Deutschlandfunk, 'Datenschützer hält Weitergabe von Handydaten in Coronavirus-Zeiten für vertretbar', Deutschlandfunk (18 March 2020): click here.

DPA, 'Polizei darf in Einzelfällen auf Corona-Daten zugreifen', Sueddeutsche Zeitung (4 May 2020): click here.

EAID, 'Appeal of the European Academy for Freedom of Information and Data Protection: Corona – Fight the pandemic, protect civil rights and data protection!' (26 March 2020): click here.

Elteste, Ulrike, 'German Authorities Issue Guidance Related to Coronavirus', Inside Privacy (17 March 2020): click here.

Engeler, Malte, et al., 'Vorschlag für ein Gesetz zur Einführung und zum Betrieb einer App-basierten Nachverfolgung von Infektionsrisiken mit dem SARS-CoV-2 (Corona) Virus' (3 May 2020): click here.

Forum Privatheit:

  • 'Pressemitteilung: Handy-Daten für Kontaktverfolgung bei Corona: Vertrauen in staatliches Handeln ist in Krisenzeiten besonders wichtig' (2 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Corona-Tracing | Ein Blog des Forum Privatheit' (since 12 April 2020): click here.

Grüll, Philipp, 'Privacy activists on COVID-19 surveillance: Either ineffective or questionable', EURACTIV Germany (26 March 2020): click here.

Heise Online, 'Unionspolitiker: Infektionsketten per Handy-App zurückverfolgen' (27 March 2020): click here.

Hottelet, Ulrich:

  • 'Digitalpolitik zwischen Tracking-Apps, Datenschutz und Datensouveränität', Heise Online (15 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Datenschutz in der Corona-Krise', Heise Online (4 May 2020): click here.

, 'Zentrale vs. dezentrale Corona-Tracing-Apps: Welche Technologie bietet den besseren Datenschutz?', Netzpolitik (8 April 2020): click here.

Krempl, Stephan, ' "Epidemie-Fußfessel": Datenschützer gegen Handy-Tracking von Coronavirus-Infizierten', Heise Online (18 March 2020): click here.

Laufer, Daniel, 'Coronavirus-Listen der niedersächsischen Polizei sind illegal', Netzpolitik (3 April 2020): click here.

Schrey, Joachim, 'Data protection and coronavirus prevention - Measuring temperature upon entry to the workplace', Noerr, (10 March 2020): click here.

Stieber, Benno, 'Datenschutzbeauftragter empört: „Da werden Dämme eingerissen“', taz (27 March 2020): click here.

Technologie- und Methodenplattform für vernetzte medizinische Forschung e. V (TMF), 'TMF: Einwilligungsbasierte Datenspende im Patientendaten-Schutzgesetz Meilenstein für die deutsche Versorgungsforschung' (1 April 2020): click here.

Thoms, Katharina, 'Sichere Datenbank mit Corona-Infizierten für Polizei in BW', SWR (3 April 2020): click here.

Ubl, Matthias, 'Bluetooth auf dem Handy ist sehr angreifbar', Zeit Online (1 April 2020): click here.


Gibraltar Regulatory Authority:

  • Information Commissioner, 'Data protection and coronavirus: what you need to know' (13 March 2020): click here.
  • Information Rights Division, 'Data Protection and Covid-19' (6 April 2020): click here.
  • 'GDPR & DPA (19) COVID-19: CONTACT TRACING & LOCATION DATA' (29 April 2020): click here.


Hellenic Data Protection Authority, 'Guidelines for the processing of personal data in the context of COVID-19' (Κατευθυντήριες γραμμές για την επεξεργασία δεδομένων προσωπικού χαρακτήρα στο πλαίσιο διαχείρισης του COVID-19) (18 March 2020): click here.

Hellenic Authority for Communication Security and Privacy (ADAE), 'Press Statement for the Number 13033 (ΔΕΛΤΙΟ ΤΥΠΟΥ για τον αριθμό 13033)' (27 April 2020): click here.

General Secretariat for Civil Protection, 'Lockdown Movement Permit': click here for information on the Lockdown Movement Permit (in English/Greek) and here for the Privacy Policy and Data Protection (in Greek).

Cooper, Dan and Goulielmos, Spyridon, 'Greek Data Protection Authority Issues Guidelines on Data Protection and Coronavirus', Inside Privacy (30 March 2020): click here.

Homo Digitalis, 'COVID-19 and Digital Rights in Greece (COVID-19 & ΨΗΦΙΑΚΑ ΔΙΚΑΙΩΜΑΤΑ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΛΛΑΔΑ)' (22 April 2020): click here (pdf).

Lawspot, 'Personal data and coronavirus: Are the hospitals allowed to use cameras in wards and broader spaces?' (Προσωπικά δεδομένα και κορωνοϊός: Μπορούν τα νοσοκομεία να χρησιμοποιούν κάμερες σε θαλάμους και ευρύτερους χώρους;) (13 March 2020): click here.

Mitrou, Lilian, 'Personal data in the coronavirus era' (Τα προσωπικά δεδομένα στην εποχή του Κορωνοϊού), SyntagmaWatch (16 March 2020): click here.

Panagopoulou-Koutnatzi, Fereniki:

  • 'The protection of personal data in the times of Coronavirus' (Η προστασία των προσωπικών δεδομένων στην εποχή του κορωνοϊού), SyntagmaWatch (17 March 2020): click here.
  • 'The personal data protection during a pandemic' (Η προστασία προσωπικών δεδομένων σε περίοδο πανδημίας), (March 2020): click here.

Pappa, Evelina, 'Coronavirus, temperature measurement and pesonal data protection (Κορωνοϊός, θερμομέτρηση και προστασία προσωπικών δεδομένων)', Lawspot (1 May 2020): click here.

Platis-Anastassiadis and Associates, 'GREECE COVID-19: How should Greek companies respond in compliance with the GDPR?', Law Alert (March 2020): click here.

Vamvaka, Elpida and Zacharopoulou, Marina, 'Personal data protection during the corovavirus pandemic' (H προστασία των προσωπικών δεδομένων στην πανδημία του κορωνοϊού), Homo Digitalis (19 March 2020): click here.


Hungarian Data Protection Authority, 'Information on processing data related to the coronavirus epidemic' (March 2020): click here.


Icelandic Data Protection Authority:

  • 'COVID-19 og persónuvernd' (13 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Umsókn um heimild til vísindarannsóknar á COVID-19' (21 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Afgreiðsla á máli vegna vísindarannsóknar á COVID-19' (24 March 2020): click here.

Vala Hafstað, 'deCODE to Screen People for COVID-19', Iceland Monitor (9 March 2020): click here.


Irish Data Protection Commission:

  • 'Data Protection and COVID-19' (6 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Protecting Personal Data When Working Remotely' (12 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Covid 19 and Subject Access Requests' (25 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Staying safe online during a pandemic' (26 March 2020): click here.
  • 'COVID-19: DPC Remote Working Arrangements' (2 April 2020): click here.


Italian Data Protection Authority (Garante):

  • 'Coronavirus: Garante Privacy, no a iniziative "fai da te" nella raccolta dei dati Soggetti pubblici e privati devono attenersi alle indicazioni del Ministero della salute e delle istituzioni competenti' (2 March 2020): click here.
  • 'In uno stato di eccezione è lecito rinunciare a qualche libertà. Ma il nostro modello non potrà mai essere la Cina" - Intervista ad Antonello Soro' (19 March 2020) click here.
  • 'Provvedimento del 26 marzo 2020 - "Didattica a distanza: prime indicazioni" ' (26 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Coronavirus: Garante privacy, su social e media troppi dettagli sui malati' (31 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Parere sulla proposta normativa per la previsione di una applicazione volta al tracciamento dei contagi da COVID-19' (29 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Coronavirus: le FAQ del Garante privacy su scuola, lavoro, sanità, ricerca ed enti locali. Chiarimenti e indicazioni per pubbliche amministrazioni e imprese private' (6 May 2020): click here.

Cooper, Dan and Luca Tosoni, 'Italian Supervisory Authority Publishes COVID-19 Guidance', Inside Privacy (4 March 2020): click here.

Olivi, Giangiacomo and Bocchi, Chiara, 'Italy Coronavirus legal updates - Daily alert Coronavirus: updates on privacy issues', Dentons (since March 2020): click here.

Pizzetti, Franco, 'A rischio le libertà dei cittadini, urgente un intervento giuridico', Agenda Digitale (23 March 2020): click here.

Spadaro, Alessandra, 'Do the containment measures taken by Italy in relation to COVID-19 comply with human rights law?', EJIL Talk! (16 March 2020): click here.


Latvian Data State Inspectorate:

  • 'DVI vērš uzmanību uz personu tiesībām un pienākumiem datu aizsardzības jomā veselības informācijas kontekstā' (17 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Par sensitīvo datu publiskošanu' (20 March 2020): click here.


Lithuanian Data Protection Inspectorate, 'Asmens duomenų apsauga ir koronavirusas COVID-19/Personal Data Protection and Coronavirus COVID-19': click here for the Lithuanian version (13 March 2020) and here for the English version (16 March 2020)

Petkevičienė, Miglė 'Will Quarantine pass the test of privacy? A Lithuanian perspective', Internet Policy Review (29 April 2020): click here.


Luxembourgish Data Protection Authority, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): Recommendations de la CNPD relatives à la collecte de données personnelles dans un contexte de crise sanitaire' (10 March 2020): click here.


Office of the Information and Data Protection Commissioner, 'Processing of personal data in the context of COVID-19' (20 March 2020): click here.


Agency for Personal Data Protection and Free Access to Information, 'PREPORUKE svim nadležnim organima, medijima, građanima i javnosti' (20 March 2020): click here.

Kajosevic, Samir:

  • 'Concern for Rights in Montenegro amid COVID-19 Fight', Balkan Insight (26 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Montenegrin Coronavirus Patients’ Identities Exposed Online', Balkan Insight (18 March 2020): click here.

(The) Netherlands

Dutch Data Protection Authority (AP):

  • 'AP geeft organisaties meer tijd vanwege coronacrisis' (20 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Mijn zieke werknemer' (March 2020): click here.
  • 'Gebruik telecomdata tegen corona kan alléén met wet' (1 April 2020): click here.
  • All updates on Corona: click here.

Hunton Andrews Kurth, 'Dutch DPA Publishes Recommendations Regarding COVID-19 and Privacy in the Workplace', Privacy & Information Security Law Blog (25 March 2020): click here.

Jacobs, Bart, 'Met een app weer naar buiten', iBestuur Online (7 April 2020): click here.

Letter to the Dutch Ministries of General Affairs, of Health, Well-being and Sport and of Justice and Legal Protection signed by academics in the Netherlands, 'COVID-19 tracking-and tracing app and health app' (13 April 2020): click here (English version in pdf).

Manancourt, Vincent, 'Dutch privacy regulator says ‘not possible’ to anonymize telecom location data' POLITICO (2 April 2020): click here.

Terstegge, Jeroen, 'Notes from the IAPP Europe, 1 May 2020', IAPP (30 April 2020): click here.


Norwegian Data Protection Authority, 'Korona og personvern' (March 2020): click here.

Dan Cooper and Luca Tosoni, 'Norwegian Supervisory Authority Issues COVID-19 Guidance', Inside Privacy (10 March 2020): click here.


Polish Data Protection Authority (UODO):

  • 'Oświadczenie Prezesa UODO w sprawie koronawirusa (12 March 2020)/ Statement by the President of the Personal Data Protection Office on coronavirus (17 March 2020)' : click here for (PL) and (EN).
  • 'Dane osobowe bezpieczne podczas zdalnego nauczania – poradnik UODO dla szkół / Security of personal data during remote learning – UODO’s guide for schools' (31 March 2020): click here for (PL) and (EN).

Polish Ministry of Digitization (Ministerstwo Cyfryzacji), 'Aplikacja „Kwarantanna domowa” – ruszył proces jej udostępniania' (19 March 2020): click here.

Koschalka, Ben, 'Quarantined Poles can confirm their location with selfies using new government app', Notes from Poland (20 March 2020): click here.


The National Supervisory Authority For Personal Data Processing, 'Prelucrarea datelor privind starea de sănătate / The processing of personal data concerning health' (18 March 2020): click here for (RO) and (EN).


Slovakian Data Protection Authority:

  • 'Koronavírus a spracúvanie osobných údajov' (13 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Stanovisko úradu k požadovaniu údajov o osobách nakazených Covid-19 alebo o osobách v karanténe mestami a obcami' (26 March 2020): click here.


Slovenian Information Commissioner:

  • 'Odgovorno ravnanje vseh je ključno v času virusne krize' (12 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Varstvo osebnih podatkov v času epidemije koronavirusa (COVID-19)' (20 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Obveščanje državljanov o začasni prepovedi javnega zbiranja preko SMS sporočil' (23 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Sporočilo za javnost glede obdelave osebnih podatkov preko neodvisne spletne strani za zbiranje in prikazovanje podatkov o okužbi Covid-19 v Sloveniji (COVID-19 SAMOPOROČANJE)' (26 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Predlog Zakona o interventnih ukrepih za zajezitev epidemije COVID-19 in omilitev njenih posledic za državljane in gospodarstvo EVA 2020-1611-0028MNENJE' (30 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Advisory opinion on the establishment of a temporary information system for the combat against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to the government of the Republic of Slovenia and the Jozef Stefan Institute', noyb/GDPRHub (30 March 2020): click here.


Spanish Data Protection Authority (AEPD):

  • 'La AEPD publica un informe sobre los tratamientos de datos en relación con el COVID-19' (12 March 2020): click here; English version here (pdf).
  • 'Campañas de phishing sobre el COVID-19' (12 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Comunicado de la AEPD en relación con webs y apps que ofrecen autoevaluaciones y consejos sobre el Coronavirus' (16 March 2020): click here;'Comunicado de la AEPD sobre apps y webs de autoevaluación del Coronavirus' (26 March 2020): click here.
  • 'FAQs sobre el coronavirus': click here.

Catalan Data Protection Authority, 'Nota en relació amb els tractaments de dades personals relacionats amb les mesures per fer front al COVID-19' (15 March 2020): click here.

Martínez Martínez, Ricard, 'A la muerte por protección de datos', LOPD y Seguridad (11 March 2020): click here.

Muñoz, Ramón, 'Más de 40 millones de teléfonos móviles serán usados para rastrear el coronavirus en toda España', El País (2 April 2020): click here.

Pérez Colomé, Jordi 'Expertos en privacidad admiten que la crisis permite un uso excepcional de datos personales', El País (21 March 2020): click here.


Swedish Data Protection Authority, 'Coronavirus och personuppgifter' (13 March 2020): click here.


Swiss Federal Data Protection and Information Commissioner:

  • 'Legal data protection framework for coronavirus containment': click here for [FR] (12 March 2020), [DE] (10 March 2020) and [EN] (17 March 2020).
  • 'Update "Covid proximity tracing App": FDPIC examines system architecture and demands proof of sufficient legal basis' (23 April 2020): click here (EN).

Seydtaghia, Anouch, 'Swisscom aidera la Confédération à détecter les attroupements via les téléphones', (25 March 2020), Le Temps: click here.

United Kingdom

Information Commissioner's Office (ICO):

  • 'Data protection and coronavirus - Statement for Health and Care Practicioners' (12 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Data protection and coronavirus: what you need to know - For organisations' (16 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Coronavirus and personal data', Your data matters blog, (18 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Community groups and COVID-19: what you need to know about data protection' (26 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Statement in response to the use of mobile phone tracking data to help during the coronavirus crisis' (28 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Apple and Google joint initiative on COVID-19 contact tracing technology' (17April 2020): click here.

Department of Health and Social Care, 'Coronavirus (COVID-19): notification to organisations to share information' (1 April 2020): click here.

National Cyber Security Centre:

  • 'Weekly Threat Report: Coronavirus used as bait by phishers' (13 March 2020): click here.
  • 'Weekly Threat Report: NCSC issue advice as home working increases across the UK' (20 March 2020): click here.


  • Gould, Matthew, 'Digital contact tracing: protecting the NHS and saving lives' (24 April 2020): click here.
  • 'NHS COVID-19 App': click here.

Liberty page on 'Civil liberties in the coronavirus crisis': click here.

Ada Lovelace Institute:

  • 'Rapid Evidence Review: Exit through the App Store?' (20 April 2020): click here.
  • 'Provisos for a Contact Tracing App' (4 May 2020): click here.

DefendDigitalMe, 'edTech in a time of Coronavirus: reflection, realism, and rights' (20 March 2020): click here.

Hern, Alex, 'UK privacy activists raise fears over social distancing tracking', The Guardian (20 March 2020): click here.

Kelion, Leo, 'UK coronavirus app 'must respect privacy rights'', BBC News (23 March 2020): click here.

Leprince-Ringuet, Daphne, 'Contact-tracing apps: Why the NHS said no to Apple and Google's plan', ZDNet (28 April 2020): click here.

LewisPaul, David Conn and David Pegg, 'UK government using confidential patient data in coronavirus response', The Guardian (12 April 2020): click here.

Manthorpe, Rowland, 'Coronavirus: NHS unveils 'data platform' to track beds, staff and ventilators', Sky News (26 March 2020): click here.

McCarthy, Kieren, 'UK finds itself almost alone with centralized virus contact-tracing app that probably won't work well, asks for your location, may be illegal', The Register (5 May 2020): click here.

McKenna, Brian, 'Privacy International puts Palantir in the dock for NHS data analysis work', Computer Weekly (29 April 2020): click here.

Moné, Brianna, '170 cybersecurity experts warn that British government’s contact tracing app could be used to surveil people even after coronavirus has gone', BusinessInsider (29 April 2020): click here.

Proctor, Kate and Hannah Devlin, 'Coronavirus UK: health passports 'possible in months'', The Guardian (4 May 2020): click here.

Ryder, Matthew, et al., 'COVID-19 & Tech responses: Legal opinion', Matrix Chambers (3 May 2020): click here.

Sabbagh, Dan, Alex Hern and Kate Proctor, 'UK racing to improve contact-tracing app's privacy safeguards', The Guardian (5 May 2020): click here.

Siatista, Ilia and Ioannis Kouvakas, 'Indiscriminate Covid-19 location tracking (Part I): Necessary in a democratic society?', Privacy International (4 May 2020): click here.

Sweeney, Mark, 'Watchdog approves use of UK phone data to help fight coronavirus', The Guardian (27 March 2020): click here.

Volpicelli, Gian, 'The NHS coronavirus app could track how long you spend outside', Wired (7 April 2020): click here.

Ward, Andrea, 'Data Protection Issues Raised by Guidance and Efforts to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19', The National Law Review (9 March 2020): click here.