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Digital certificates for vaccination, test and recovery

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This page contains resources on the topic of digital certificates in relation to vaccination, test and recovery in the COVID-19 context (last update 24 March 2021). The resources on this page have been put together by Olga Gkotsopoulou (Law, Science, Technology and Society Research Group), Danaja Fabcic Povse (Law, Science, Technology and Society Research Group) and Daniela Galatova (Pan-European University of Bratislava).

If you have suggestions for content or questions, please contact Danaja Fabcic Povse.

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  • EU institutional resources
  • Journal and magazine articles, news commentaries and blogposts
  • Civil society resources
  • International organisations

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EU institutional resources

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EU institution, agency or body/other organisation at EU level Resource
European Commission
  • Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council on a framework for the issuance, verification and acceptance of interoperable certificates on vaccination, testing and recovery to facilitate free movement during the COVID-19 pandemic (Digital Green Certificate), Brussels, 17.3.2021 COM(2021) 130 final 2021/0068 (COD): click here.
  • Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a framework for the issuance, verification and acceptance of interoperable certificates on vaccination, testing and recovery to third-country nationals legally staying or legally residing in the territories of Member States during the COVID-19 pandemic (Digital Green Certificate), Brussels, 17.3.2021 COM(2021) 140 final 2021/0071 (COD): click here.
  • Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council and the Council: A common path to safe and sustained re-opening (17 March 2021): click here.
  • ‘COVID-19: Digital Green Certificates (Factsheet)’ (March 2021): click here.
Consilium
  • Council Recommendation (EU) 2021/119 of 1 February 2021 amending Recommendation (EU) 2020/1475 on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic OJ L 36I , 2.2.2021, p. 1–6: click here.
  • Council Recommendation (EU) 2020/1632 of 30 October 2020 on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the Schengen area OJ L 366, 4.11.2020, p. 25–26: click here.

  • Council Recommendation (EU) 2020/1475 of 13 October 2020 on a coordinated approach to the restriction of free movement in response to the COVID-19 pandemic OJ L 337, 14.10.2020, p. 3–9: click here.
European Parliament
  • Press Release 'Parliament fast-tracks procedure to adopt Digital Green Certificate by June' (25 March 2021): click here.
  • Regulation (EU) 2021/953 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2021 on a framework for the issuance, verification and acceptance of interoperable COVID-19 vaccination, test and recovery certificates (EU Digital COVID Certificate) to facilitate free movement during the COVID-19 pandemic (15 June 2021): click here.
  • Regulation (EU) 2021/954 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2021 on a framework for the issuance, verification and acceptance of interoperable COVID-19 vaccination, test and recovery certificates (EU Digital COVID Certificate) with regard to third-country nationals legally staying or residing in the territories of Member States during the COVID-19 pandemic (15 June 2021): click here.
European Data Protection Board
  • EDPB-EDPS Joint Opinion 04/2021 on the Digital Green Certificate (31 March 2021): click here.
eHealth Network
  • Guidelines on COVID-19 Citizen Recovery Interoperable Certificates-Minimum Dataset (Release 1)’ (15 March 2021): click here.
  • ‘Guidelines on Verifiable Vaccination Certificates - Basic Interoperability Elements’ (12 March 2021): click here.
  • ‘Interoperability of Health Certificates: Trust Framework (v1.0)’ (12 March 2021): click here.
EUROPOL
  • ‘Early Warning Notification - The Illicit Sales of False Negative COVID-19 Test Certificates’ (1 February 2021): click here.

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Journal and magazine articles, news commentaries and blogposts

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  • Fox-Muraton, Mélissa, 'France’s Covid health pass raises serious ethical questions' (July 28 2021): click here.
  • Wilford, Sara Helen, et al. 'The Digital Network of Networks: Regulatory Risk and Policy Challenges of Vaccine Passports' (12 July 2021): click here.
  • Ada Lovelace Institute, ‘International Monitor: Vaccine Passports and COVID Status Apps’: click here (regularly updated observatory).
  • Gkotsopoulou, Olga and Daniela Galatova, 'The EU Digital Green Certificate proposed framework: how does it interact with data protection law?', EULawLive (24 March 2021): click here.
  • Bacchi, Umberto,  ‘Coronavirus Vaccine Passports: What You Need to Know’, Thomson Reuters Foundation News (9 March 2021): click here.
  • McMahon, Shannon, ‘Everything Travelers Need to Know about Vaccine Passports’, Washington Post (3 March 2021): click here.
  • Fischer, Max, ‘Vaccine Passports, Covid’s next political flash point, The New York Times (2 March 2021): click here.
  • Child, David, ‘“A Can of Worms”: Experts Weigh in on the Vaccine Passport Debate’, AlJazeera (14 March 2021): click here
  • Makszimov, Vlagyiszlav, ‘No Trace: Hungary Deletes Vaccine Origin from Jab Certificate’, Euractiv (1 March 2021): click here.
  • Ada Lovelace Institute, ‘What place should COVID-19 vaccine passports have in society?’ (17 February 2021): click here.  
  • Zakrzewski, Cat, ‘Analysis | The Technology 202: Tech Giants Are Teaming up to Build Digital Vaccine Records’, Washington Post (15 January 2021): click here.
  • Mishra, Manas, and Amruta Khandekar, ‘Tech and Health Giants Push for Digital COVID “Vaccine Passports”’, Thomson Reuters Foundation News (14 January 2021): click here.
  • Ada Lovelace Institute, 'Vaccine passports and COVID status apps: launching an evidence review and expert deliberation' (12 January 2021): click here
  • Parker, Imogen, and Elliot Jones, ‘Something to Declare? Surfacing Issues with Immunity Certificates’,  Ada Lovelace Institute (2 June 2020): click here.
  • Persad G, Emanuel EJ, 'The Ethics of COVID-19 Immunity-Based Licenses (“Immunity Passports”)', JAMA (6 May 2020): click here.
  • Phelan, Alexandra L‘COVID-19 Immunity Passports and Vaccination Certificates: Scientific, Equitable, and Legal Challenges’, The Lancet (May 2020): click here.
  • Ada Lovelace Institute, ‘COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Review: Exit through the App Store?’ (20 April 2020): click here.
  • Ní Loideain, Nóra, ‘COVID-19 and “Immunity Passports” – The Way Forward’, blogdroiteuropéen (8 October 2020): click here.
  • de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo, 'Data Protection Issues related to Covid-19: Immunity passports', blogdroiteuropéen (27 June 2020): click here
  • Hicks, Chris et al., 'Secure ABC: Secure AntiBody Certificates for COVID-19' (5 June 2020): click here
  • Henry T Greely, COVID-19 immunity certificates: science, ethics, policy, and law, Journal of Law and the Biosciences (28 May 2020): click here.
  • Kofler, Natalie and Baylis, Françoise, 'Ten reasons why immunity passports are a bad idea', Nature (21 May 2020): click here
  • Renieris, Elizabeth M. et al., 'The Dangers of Blockchain-Enabled “Immunity Passports” for COVID-19 - A Legal, Public Health, and Technical Perspective', Medium - Bergman Klein Center (18 May 2020): click here
  • 'COVID-19 Immunity Passports: Inevitable? Ethical? - A webinar summary and resources', PHEPREN Blog (4 May 2020): click here
  • Baylis, Françoise, and Natalie Kofler, ‘COVID-19 Immunity Testing’, Issues in Science and Technology (29 April 2020): click here.
  • Wilson, Kumanan, Katherine M. Atkinson, and Cameron P. Bell. ‘Travel Vaccines Enter the Digital Age: Creating a Virtual Immunization Record’, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 94, no. 3 (2 March 2016): click here.

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Civil society resources

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  • Epicenter.works, 'Why the electronic green vaccination certificate creates new problems instead of solving them', European Digital Rights (EDRi) (7 April 2021): click here.

  • Privacy International, ‘“Anytime and Anywhere”: Vaccination, Immunity Certificates, and the Permanent Pandemic’, European Digital Rights (EDRi) (10 March 2021): click here.

  • Vaccination Passes Make No Sense – At Present, DataEthics (17 February 2021): click here 

  • Privacy Interrnational, ‘Immunity Passports and Covid-19: An Explainer’, Privacy International (21 July 2020): click here.
  • Privacy International, ‘The Looming Disaster of Immunity Passports and Digital Identity’, Privacy International (21 July 2020): click here.
  • Jakubowska, Ella, 'COVID-Tech: the sinister consequences of immunity passports', European Digital Rights (EDRi) (10 June 2020): click here. 

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International organisations

  • World Health Organization, ‘Interim position paper: considerations regarding proof of COVID-19 vaccination for international travellers’ (5 February 2021): click here. 
  • World Health Organization, ‘Scientific Brief: “Immunity Passports” in the Context of COVID-19’ (24 April 2020): click here.
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